From Early Dynastic times onward, limestone was the construction material of choice for Ancient Egyptian temples, pyramids, and mastabas wherever limestone bedrock occurred, that is, along the Mediterranean coast, in the northern parts of the Western and Eastern Deserts, and in the Nile Valley between Cairo and Esna (fig. 1). Sandstone bedrock is present in the Nile Valley from Esna south into Sudan as well as in the adjacent deserts, and within this region it was the only building stone employed.2 Sandstone was also imported into the Nile Valley’s limestone region as far north as el-‘Sheikh Ibada and nearby el-‘Amarna, where it was used for New Kingdom temples. There are sandstone temples further north in the Bahariya and Faiyum depressions, but these were built with local materials. The first large-scale use of sandstone occurred near Edfu in Upper Egypt, where it was employed for interior pavement and wall veneer in an Early Dynastic tomb at Hierakonpolis3 and also for a small 3rd Dynasty pyramid at Naga el-Goneima.4 Apart from this latter structure, the earliest use of sandstone in monumental architecture was for Middle Kingdom temples in the Abydos-Thebes region with the outstanding example the 11th Dynasty mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II (Nebhepetre) at Deir el-Bahri. From the beginning of the New Kingdom onward, with the exceptions of some portions of Karnak temple and especially Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, which are of limestone, Theban temples were built either largely or entirely of sandstone, and this was also true for most of the temples in the southern portion of the limestone region. When limestone and sandstone are both present in a temple, they are usually employed for different architectural applications with the sandstone particularly favored for segmented columns and architraves. Uniquely, however, in the Seti I temple at Abydos, limestone and sandstone are used side-by-side for wall reliefs with scenes beginning on one rock type and then continuing across the other.
Appendix 1 lists the temples (and other monuments) containing significant amounts of sandstone and figure 1 shows their locations. There are undoubtedly temples missing from this list that are either destroyed, still undiscovered, or known but with unrecognized sandstone elements. The southernmost temple built by Egyptians, also of sandstone, is at Jebel Barkal near the west end of the Nile River’s fourth cataract in Sudan.
Fig. 1. Maps of Egypt and northern Sudan showing the locations of ancient sandstone temples and quarries.
The preference for sandstone over limestone as a building material coincided with the transfer of religious and political authority from Memphis near Cairo to Thebes (Luxor) at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty. Thebes was closer to the sandstone sources and this probably was a factor, but more importantly the Egyptians at this time also recognized that sandstone was superior to limestone in terms of the strength and size of blocks obtainable, and this permitted the construction of larger temples with longer architraves and roofing slabs.5 The hardness and strength of sandstone depends on the amount and type of cementing agent holding the sand grains together. The most common cements in Egyptian sandstones are quartz, iron oxides (limonite and hematite), calcite, and clay minerals. When these cements are sparse, the rock is friable and so easily disaggregated, and when abundant and filling all the intergranular pore spaces, the rock is well-indurated and durable. Sandstone with abundant quartz cement is the hardest of all and is referred to as ‘silicified sandstone,’ one of ancient Egypt’s most important ornamental and utilitarian stones. Silicified sandstone was not used as a building material for temples and so will not be further considered here.6 It should be noted, however, that on at least one occasion this rock was employed for a small shrine, the so-called ‘red chapel’ of Hatshepsut in Karnak’s Open-Air Museum.
Sandstone in temples can usually only be examined megascopically (i.e., with at most a magnifying lens) with the observable properties limited to grain size, bedding, and color. Additional information on texture and especially mineralogy is provided by microscopic (i.e., petrographic or thin section) analysis, and geochemistry can identify amounts of trace elements. Such analyses, however, are destructive and require samples that are not normally available to those studying sandstone monuments.
Throughout most of the world, grain size in sandstone and other clastic sedimentary rocks is specified according to the Udden-Wentworth grain size scale (table 1). In studies of Egyptian rocks by German geologists, however, the grain size terminology usually follows the DIN (Deutschen Instituts für Normung) 4022 scale.7 This scale recognizes only three grain size divisions for sand: coarse (2.000-0.630 mm), medium (0.630-0.200 mm) and fine (0.200-0.063 mm). In the present paper, it is the Udden-Wentworth scale’s five-fold division for sand that is employed throughout. The modal or average grain size of temple sandstones is easily determined through the use of a visual comparator. There are many such aids commercially available, but the author prefers the one shown in figure 2. This is placed against a sandstone surface and viewed along the right edge with a magnifying lens (5-10X) to match the sand grains in the rock with a size-calibrated image on the comparator.
|Sediment Name||Grain Size Range||Rock Name8|
|Gravel||boulder||over 256 mm||conglomerate (if rounded clasts) or breccia (if angular clasts)|
|cobble||64 to 256mm|
|prebble||4 to 64 mm|
|granule||2.00 to 4.00 mm|
|Sand||very coarse grained||2.00 to 1.00 mm||sandstone|
|coarse grained||1.00 to 0.50 mm|
|medium grained||0.50 to 0.25 mm|
|fine grained||0.25 to 0.125 mm|
|very fine grained||0.125 to 0.062 mm|
|Mud||Silt||0.004 to 0.062 mm||silty shale if fissile8, otherwise siltstone||mudstone|
|clay||less than 0.004 mm||clayey shale if fissile9, otherwise claystone|
Table 1. The Udden-Wentworth grain size scale for clastic sedimentary rocks.
Fig. 2. Grain-size comparator of the American-Canadian Stratigraphic Company (Denver, Colorado, USA). Not shown to scale. The upper (U) and lower (L) halves of the five Udden-Wentworth sand-size classes (vf, f, m, c and vc) are shown with a grain-roundness comparator along the bottom edge. Grain sizes are given in μm and also in phi (Φ) notation, where [phi size] = -log2 [mm size]).
When sandy sediment is deposited it can exhibit a number of bedding types depending on the environmental conditions. The principal ones and the easiest to recognize in temple sandstones are planar bedding, and tabular and trough cross-bedding. These structures are defined by the attitude of laminations between the major bedding planes (fig. 3). The laminations can be difficult to see, however, on dirty or weathered rock surfaces. When no laminations are present, the rock is said to exhibit massive bedding. Sometimes the laminations are merely indistinct and thus give the false impression of massive bedding. All bedding types are encountered in Egyptian sandstones, but by far the most common is tabular cross-bedding (fig. 4).
Fig. 3. Diagram illustrating planar bedding, and trough and tabular cross-bedding. The heavier lines represent major bedding planes and the lighter ones are the internal laminations.
Fig. 4. Tabular cross-bedding in sandstone at the Nag el-Hammam quarry. Smallest scale division is 1 cm. The scale rests on a major bedding plane separating two cross-bed sets.
With few exceptions, the sandstone quarried in Ancient Egypt has an internal coloration that varies from light shades of gray, yellow, orange, brown or pink, or mixtures thereof (figs. 5-6). Yellowish-brown is the most common hue. Such normally colored sandstones, which vary from very fine- to coarse-grained, can be collectively referred to as drab-colored. Nearly white sandstones are occasionally encountered and these constitute another distinct color variety.
Fig. 5. Typical drab-colored sandstone (very fine-grained) from the el-Mahamid quarry.
Fig. 6. Typical drab-colored sandstone (fine-grained) from the Gebel el-Silsila quarry.
A very different-looking sandstone was employed only during the 12th and especially the 11th Dynasties and this is medium-grained with a uniform, moderately dark reddish- to mainly purplish-brown color (fig. 7). It was used for several temples in the Abydos-Thebes region, including the Osiris-Khentyimentyu temple at Kom el-Sultan in Abydos,10 the north temple of Min and Isis in Qift,11 the Senwosret I temple within the Amun temple complex at Karnak in Luxor,12 and on the Luxor West Bank in the Amun temple at Medinet Habu,13 and the Mentuhotep II mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri.14 It is probably not a coincidence that the 11th Dynasty saw both the first use of purplish sandstone in Egypt and also the opening of the first mine for amethyst, a purplish gemstone, near Wadi el-Hudi, 25 km southeast of Aswan.15 Also in the Middle Kingdom, there was a surge in the popularity of purplish-red garnet for jewelry. It is thus apparent that the color purple was especially favored during this period but the reason for this is unknown.
Fig. 7. Purplish sandstone column fragment in the Mentuhotep II temple at Deir el-Bahri. Smallest scale division is 10 cm.
A final color variety is the light green sandstone employed in Karnak temple’s 5th pylon (fig. 8), which dates to the reign of Thutmose I.16 This rock, which is fine-grained with tabular cross-bedding, is only known from this example. It may have been chosen for the symbolism represented by its color, with green signifying rebirth in the afterlife (as represented by Osiris, whose figure is typically depicted in green) as well as fertility and joy. Challenging this suggestion, however, is the fact that the 5th pylon was originally covered by a limestone casing with the green sandstone hidden from view.
Fig. 8. Greenish sandstone block in the 5th pylon at Karnak temple. Note the chisel marks.
Determining sandstone’s color can be problematical because its appearance on dirty, weathered exterior surfaces can be very different from what is seen internally on fresh breaks. On quarry and temples walls and especially on natural outcrops, the sandstone usually has a fairly uniform light brown color. Where long exposed to the elements, the rock will develop a patina known as ‘desert varnish’. This has a variable composition but normally consists of iron and manganese oxides plus clay minerals.17 It thickens and darkens with age, eventually becoming nearly black and completely obscuring a rock’s internal color. Color determination is further complicated when working with archaeological objects because, of course, these cannot be broken to reveal their true (internal) color. The best one can do is look for relatively fresh breaks in the external surfaces that occurred during excavation or subsequent handling. These are not always present or recognizable, however. And finally, color perception varies from person to person and under different lighting conditions, and so it is often helpful to use a standard color guide, such as the Geological Society of America’s ‘Rock-Color Chart’ (Boulder, Colorado, USA).
Internal sandstone colors in shades of yellow and brown are caused by the presence of hydrated iron oxides (i.e., iron hydrates). These are collectively referred to as ‘limonite’ and represent a number of poorly crystallized phases with the generalized formula of FeO•OH•nH2O or Fe2O3•nH2O. Goethite (FeO[OH] or HFeO2) is a common, well-crystallized phase within the iron hydrate group. Shades of pink, red and purple are the result of anhydrous iron oxide (i.e., hematite; Fe2O3). Some Egyptian sandstones have an orangey coloration. Orange is a blend of red and yellow and so in rocks this probably represents a mixture of hematite and limonite. When iron oxides are absent, the rock has a light grayish to nearly white color which is the natural hue of the quartz sand grains. The green sandstone in Karnak’s 5th pylon gets its color from the presence of sand-size grains of dark green glauconite, a type of clay mineral.
A final megascopic attribute of temple sandstones is the tool marks commonly left on their surfaces when blocks were dressed to adjust their size and shape (e.g., fig. 8). Indications of when the dressing was done can be gleaned from the different forms taken by the marks and the metal residues of the tools that made them.18
The various sandstones used in Egyptian temples were collectively referred to in the past as the Nubian Sandstone. Stratigraphical difficulties with this designation caused geologists to later redefine the sandstones into numerous, and at times conflicting, formations. A sedimentary formation is a sequence of strata distinct from the rock layers both above and below by virtue of its lithology or paleontology, and thus is a mappable stratigraphic unit. The formations described in table 2 for Egypt are the most widely accepted ones,19 and these are defined primarily by their fossil content. Despite the new terminology, these rocks are still informally referred to as the Nubian Sandstone or Nubian Group. More formally in Sudan, the correlative stratigraphic units are usually identified simply as the Nubian Sandstone Formation. From the table it can be seen that the petrology of a sandstone will vary somewhat according to the formation supplying it. The geologic ages of sedimentary strata (and consequently also formations) decrease from south to north in the Nile Valley due to their slight (approximately 2 degree) northerly inclination, and this means that the sandstone properties also change in a downriver direction. The boundaries between the formations in the Nile Valley are shown in figure 1.
|Dakhla Formation (Upper Cretaceous – Late Campanian and Maastrichtian stages to Paleocene; ~74-60 mya): interbedded sandstone, silty and clayey mudstones, and limestone.|
|Duwi Formation (Upper Cretaceous – Middle Campanian to Early Maastrichtian stages; ~78-70 mya): very fine- to medium-grained sandstone with mainly massive to planar bedding and occasional tabular cross-bedding plus interbedded silty and clayey mudstones, limestone, and phosphorite.|
|Quseir Formation (Upper Cretaceous – Early to Late Campanian stage; ~82-74 mya): very fine- to mainly fine- to medium-grained sandstone with planar bedding to mainly tabular cross-bedding plus interbedded silty and clayey mudstones, and phosphorite.|
|Umm Barmil Formation (Upper Cretaceous – Santonian to Early Campanian stages; ~85-82 mya): in the upper part, mainly fine- to medium-grained sandstone with tabular cross-bedding and interbedded silty and clayey mudstones and oolitic iron ore; and in the lower part, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone with tabular cross-bedding.|
|Timsah Formation (Upper Cretacous – Coniacian to Santonian stages; ~90-85 mya): medium- and coarse-grained to mainly fine-grained sandstone with planar-bedding to mainly tabular and trough cross-bedding plus interbedded silty and clayey mudstones, and oolitic iron ore.|
|Abu Aggag Formation (Upper Cretaceous – Turonian stage; ~94-90 mya): medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, occasionally pebbly, kaolinitic and often ferruginous, with mainly trough cross-bedding plus interbedded pebble-cobble conglomerate.|
|Taref Formation (Upper Cretaceous – Turonian stage; ~94-90 mya): mainly fine- to coarse-grained sandstone with tabular cross-bedding and, near the base, interbedded conglomerate.|
|Bahariya Formation (Upper Cretaceous – Cenomanian stage; ~100-94 mya): interbedded sandstone and silty and clayey mudstone.|
|Sabaya Formation (Lower to Upper Cretaceous – Albian to Early Cenomanian stages; ~113-98 mya): fine-grained (upper part) and medium- to coarse-grained (lower part) sandstone with abundant trough to mainly tabular cross-bedding plus interbedded conglomerate and silty mudstone.|
|Lake Nasser Formation (Lower Cretaceous – Aptian stage; ~125-113 mya): interbedded fine- to coarse-grained sandstone with tabular to trough cross-bedding and planar bedding, and silty and clayey mudstones.|
|Abu Simbel Formation (Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous – Oxfordian to Barremian stages; ~163-125 mya): interbedded tabular to trough cross-bedded sandstone and mudstone.|
Table 2. Egyptian Sandstone Formations.20
Appendix 2 lists the 44 known ancient sandstone quarries in Egypt and northern Sudan, and figure 1 shows their locations. A locality name and coordinates are provided for each quarry along with its period of activity, size, current status, and, in some cases, a general petrological description. Although the list is long, it is far from complete. There are undoubtedly more quarries awaiting discovery, as well as others that are forever lost because they have been destroyed through urban growth or especially as a result of modern quarrying for rough construction stone. Although not destroyed, numerous sandstone quarries are no longer accessible because they are now under Lake Nasser.
As a practical matter, the building stones used at ancient construction sites usually came from a quarry in the immediate neighborhood. This quarry was probably on the upriver side of a site because it was easier to float a heavily loaded boat down the Nile than to sail it upriver against the current, even with the prevailing northerly wind. A notable exception to the local derivation of building stones is the high-quality sandstone from Gebel el-Silsila. This quarry, the most extensive in Egypt for sandstone, provided large, fracture-free blocks of uniform color and texture. It was the principal building material for temples in the Theban region, over 100 km to the north, as documented by ancient inscriptions.21 It was no doubt used for many other distant structures, especially those in a downriver direction. The second largest sandstone quarry is at the now drowned site of Qertassi and although it apparently did not supply rock of as high a quality as that coming from Gebel el-Silsila, it was mainly used outside its immediate area. Inscriptions tell us, for example, that it was employed for the Philae temple complex 35 km to the north,22 and it was probably also used for other structures in the Aswan area. For most temples, however, the quarry supplying the stone will be found close at hand. It is expected, therefore, that more quarries remain to be discovered, especially near the Nubian temples along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
It is not yet possible to identify by analytical means the specific quarry supplying a particular sandstone, but the formation, and hence the general location in the Nile Valley, can sometimes be established. For example, very fine-grained sandstone with planar bedding almost certainly comes from the Duwi or Quseir Formation whereas coarse-grained sandstone with trough cross-bedding probably comes from one of the formations near Aswan or to the south of it. Fine- to medium-grained, tabular cross-bedded sandstones – the predominant lithology – can come from any formation. Further distinctions require petrographic microscopy. There are just a few published sources of petrographic information on Egyptian sandstones in the Nile Valley: two for natural outcrops in the Aswan23 and el-Mahamid24 areas, another for ancient quarries throughout Egypt but only providing incomplete qualitative data,25 and the last for the ancient Gebel el-Silsila quarry.26 The present author has also done petrographic analyses of samples from several quarries between Esna and Aswan as well as from two sandstone temples closely associated with quarries south of Aswan. With one exception, all the aforementioned data combined still represent too few samples to say anything definitive about the mineralogical differences among quarries or formations. The exception is total feldspar content (i.e., orthoclase + microcline + plagioclase). This ranges between 5 and 15% for the el-Mahamid, el-Keijal, el-Bueib and Nag el-Raqiqein quarries – all within 20 km of Edfu – with the first two in the Duwi Formation and the last two in the upper part of the underlying Quseir Formation. All other tested quarries south of Nag el-Raqiqein have a total feldspar content of less than 5%. These percentages, all from the author’s petrographic analyses, are provided in appendix 2. The feldspar-rich sandstones are what petrologists call ‘arkose’, ‘subarkose’ or ‘arkosic arenite’, depending on the classification scheme followed, with all the other sandstones, except the glauconite-rich ones, termed ‘quartz arenite’. Other minerals in Egyptian sandstones show no consistent differences among quarries and formations, at least based on the currently available sample data.
The finding for feldspar content is supported by the trace element analyses of samples from four quarries: el-Mahamid, Nag el-Falilih, Nag el-Sheikh Garad and Gebel el-Silsila.27 It was found that rubidium is significantly higher for el-Mahamid than for the other three quarries. Rubidium is a trace element associated with feldspar and so it is to be expected that it will be high in sandstones rich in this mineral. Because feldspar grains are more easily broken and abraded than quartz grains, which are the main constituent of sandstone, the amount of feldspar in sand tends to increase with decreasing grain size. It is this relationship that probably accounts for the differences in feldspar content among quarries, although it is also possible the feldspar content reflects different geologic sources for the sand.
The source of the Middle Kingdom’s purplish sandstone is unknown. The quarries at Qubbet el-Hawa, Nag el-Hammam and Wadi Shatt el-Rigal are previously suggested possibilities,28 but all can be excluded. None possesses beds of medium-grained sandstone of the requisite color that are at least 1 m thick, the minimum dimension required for the largest architectural elements and statues cut from the purplish sandstone. The most likely source at present appears to be the Gebel el-Silsila quarry but more fieldwork is needed to evaluate this possibility. This quarry is also the only known source of a white sandstone, which was used to a minor extent in the Karnak temple.
There is no known quarry that could have supplied the green glauconitic sandstone at Karnak. This rock is closely associated with phosphatic deposits (phosphorite) in the upper part of the Quseir Formation and also especially in the overlying Duwi Formation (table 2).29 There are numerous, thick glauconitic sandstone beds in both formations, but only in the Western Desert’s Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga Depressions. Rare, thin-bedded occurrences of this rock have been reported from the Nile Valley, but with no specific localities identified.30 If beds of glauconitic sandstone are to be found along the Nile, it is most likely to be near Edfu, where there are outcrops of phosphatic rocks in the Quseir and Duwi Formations. This is further indicated by a sample of glauconitic sandstone from Karnak’s 5th pylon that was analyzed by the author and found to contain 6.3% total feldspar, which is consistent with a derivation from one of these formations. If an 18th Dynasty quarry for glauconitic sandstone once existed near Edfu, it may have been destroyed by the extensive phosphate mining that occurred in this region beginning in the early 1900’s.
Although the megascopic properties of sandstone may not allow the identification of a specific formation or quarry, they are still useful for recognizing that multiple sources of building materials were used in different temples or in different construction phases of a single temple. What is needed, therefore, is a systematic study of sandstone used in Egyptian temples for purposes of both basic documentation and source characterization. More research is also needed on the sandstone quarries, including further megascopic and petrographic descriptions as well as an analysis of pottery to be better establish their ages.
Sandstone was the principal building stone used in Upper Egypt and Nubia from the Middle Kingdom onward. It came from forty-four known quarries (and others yet undiscovered) that were excavated in eleven geologic formations, all informally referred to as the Nubian Sandstone. This rock can be quite variable in its grain size, bedding type, color, and mineralogy. These properties can sometimes identify the formation – and, hence, the general geographic location of the source – for a sandstone used in a temple. For example, a quarry in the Duwi Formation or upper part of the Quseir Formation, and thus in the Edfu region, is indicated by either a greenish (glauconitic) sandstone, a sandstone of any color containing over 5% total feldspar, or a very fine-grained sandstone with planar bedding. It is not currently possible to recognize specific quarries for these or any other variety of sandstone used in temples, except where these associations are indicated in ancient inscriptions.
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|Location32||Position||Monument and date33||Other Materials and status|
|el-Sheikh `Ibada [Gr. Antinoopolis]||on EB at 27° 48.455’ N, 30° 52.373’ E||temple of Ramesses II [NK19]||minor limestone; largely destroyed|
|el-`Amarna [Eg. Akhetaten]||on EB at 27° 38.720’ N, 30° 53.760’ E||small Aten temple of Akhenaten [NK18]||mostly limestone; largely destroyed|
|Matmar||on EB at 27° 6.388’ N, 31° 19.832’ E||combined Aten and Seth temples of Akhenaten and Ramesses II [NK18-19]||mostly limestone?; destroyed|
|el-`Araba el-Madfuna [Eg. Abedju; Gr. Abydos]||on WB at 26° 11.516’ N, 31° 54.671’ E||Osiris temple [NK18 & LP30]||mostly limestone?; largely destroyed|
|on WB at 26° 11.507’ N, 31° 54.603’ E||Osiris-Khentyimentyu temple at Kom el-Sultan [OK-LP30]||mostly mud brick; largely destroyed|
|on WB at 26° 11.188’ N, 31° 54.982’ E||cenotaph temple of Ramesses II [NK19]||mostly limestone; largely destroyed|
|on WB at 26° 11.090’ N, 31° 55.140’ E||Osiris temple of Seti I [NK19]||mostly limestone; largely intact|
|Dendara [Eg. Iunet and Tantere; Gr. Tentyris]||on WB at 26° 8.520’ N, 32° 40.210’ E||Hathor temple [Pt-R; minor LP30]||intact|
|Qift [Eg. Gebtu; Gr. Coptos]||on EB at 25° 59.804’ N, 32° 48.973’ E||north temple of Min & Isis [Pt-R; minor MK12, NK18 & LP26]||largely destroyed|
|on EB at 25° 59.773’ N, 32° 48.991’ E||middle temple [Pt-R; minor MK12, 3IP22 & NK18]||largely destroyed|
|on EB at 25° 59.741’ N, 32° 48.996’ E||south temple of Geb [Pt; minor LP30]||largely destroyed|
|Qus [Eg. Gesa or Gesy; Gr. Apollinopolis Parva]||on EB at 25° 54.954’ N, 32° 45.847’ E||Haroeris and Heqet temple [Pt]||largely destroyed|
|Nag’ el-Madamud [Eg. Madu]||on EB at 25° 44.051’ N, 32° 42.606’ E||Montu temple [Pt-R; minor MK12, NK18 & LP?]||minor limestone; largely destroyed|
|Luxor East Bank [Eg. Waset and Ipet-Resyt; Gr. Thebes and Diospolis Magna]||at 25° 43.111’ N, 32° 39.487’ E||Karnak Amun temple complex [NK18-20; minor MK12, 3IP21-23, LP25-26, LP29-30, Ma, & Pt-R]||moderately intact|
|at 25° 42.005’ N, 32° 38.367’ E||Luxor Amun temple [NK18-19; minor NK20, LP25, LP30, & Pt-R]||largely intact|
|connecting the two above||Avenue of sphinxes [LP30]||moderately intact|
|Luxor West Bank||at 25° 44.287’ N, 32° 36.415’ E||Hatshepsut mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri [NK18]||mostly limestone; moderately intact|
|at 25° 44.274’ N, 32° 36.357’ E||Tuthmose III mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri [NK18]||minor limestone; largely destroyed|
|at 25° 44.241’ N, 32° 36.370’ E||Mentuhotep II mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri [MK11]||minor limestone; largely destroyed|
|at ~25° 43.98’ N, 32° 37.01’ E||Ramesses IV mortuary temple [NK20]||destroyed with building stone unknown but probably including sandstone|
|at 25° 43.965’ N, 32° 37.684’ E||Seti I mortuary temple at Qurna [NK19]||largely intact|
|at 25° 43.815’ N, 32° 36.782’ E||Tuthmose III valley temple at Qurna [NK18]||largely destroyed|
|at 25° 43.738’ N, 32° 36.128’ E||Hathor temple at Deir el-Medina [Pt]||largely intact|
|at 25° 43.728’ N, 32° 36.685’ E||Amenhotep II mortuary temple at Qurna [NK18]||largely destroyed|
|at 25° 43.656’ N, 32° 36.629’ E||Ramesses II mortuary temple, the Ramesseum [NK19]||minor limestone; moderately intact|
|at 25° 43.621’ N, 32° 36.513’ E||Tuthmose IV mortuary temple [NK18]||largely destroyed|
|at 25° 43.615’ N, 32° 36.471’ E||Wezmose mortuary temple [NK 18]||destroyed with building stone unknown but probably including sandstone|
|at 25° 43.501’ N, 32° 36.386’ E||Merenptah mortuary temple [NK19]||common limestone; largely destroyed|
|at 25° 43.327’ N, 32° 36.221’ E||Amenophis, son of Hapu, mortuary temple [NK18]||mostly mud brick; largely destroyed|
|at 25° 43.309’ N, 32° 36.066’ E||Ay and Horemheb mortuary temple [NK18]||mostly mud brick; largely destroyed|
|at 25° 43.293’ N, 32° 36.226’ E||Thutmose II mortuary temple [NK18]||destroyed with building stone unknown but probably including sandstone|
|at 25° 43.261’ N, 32° 36.580’ E||Amenhotep III mortuary temple at Kom el-Hetan [NK18]||minor limestone; largely destroyed|
|at 25° 43.193’ N, 32° 36.044’ E||Ramesses III mortuary temple at Medinet Habu [NK20]||largely intact|
|at 25° 43.139’ N, 32° 36.121’ E||Amun temple at Medinet Habu [NK18; minor MK11, NK20, LP25-26, LP29-30, Ma, Pt & R]||largely intact|
|at 25° 43.023’ N, 32° 36.037’ E||Toth temple, the Qasr el-Aguz, at Medinet Habu [Pt]||largely intact|
|at 25° 41.716’ N, 32° 34.706’ E||Isis temple, the Deir el-Shalwit [R]||intact|
|Armant [Eg. Iuny; Gr. Hermonthis]||on WB at 25° 37.328’ N, 32° 32.664’ E||Montu temple [NK18; minor MK11-12, Pt & R]||minor limestone; largely destroyed|
|Tod [Eg. Djerty; Gr. Tuphium]||on EB at 25° 34.985’ N, 32° 32.012’ E||Montu temple [NK18 & Pt; minor MK11-12, NK19-20 & R]||largely destroyed|
|Esna [Eg. Iunyt, Senet and Tasenet; Gr. Latopolis]||on WB at 25° 17.609’ N, 32° 33.371’ E||Khnum temple [Pt-R]||intact|
|near Esna||on WB at ~25° 19.3’ N, 32° 31.6’ E||Khunum temple at Kom el-Deir [Pt-R]||all destroyed and now lost with the building stone unknown, except for the el-Hilla temple, but probably sandstone|
|on EB at ~ 25° 17.1’ N, 32° 34.9’ E||el-Hilla or Contralatopolis temple [Pt-R]|
|on WB at ~ 25° 12.8’ N, 32° 38.0’ E||Kom Mer temple [R]|
|on WB but not located||Osiris and Isis temple at Kom Senum [age?]|
|on WB but not located||Sahure temple [OK5]|
|el-Kab [Eg. Nekheb; Gr. Eileithyiaspolis]||on EB at 25° 7.130’ N, 32° 47.870’ E||Nekhbet and Thoth temples [NK18-19, LP25-27, LP29-30 & R]||largely destroyed|
|near el-Kab||on EB at 25° 8.313’ N, 32° 49.718’ E||Hathor and Nekhbet shrine [NK18]||intact|
|on EB at 25° 8.062’ N, 32° 49.060’ E||Shesmetet shrine [Pt; minor NK19]||partly rock-cut; moderately intact|
|on EB at 25° 8.021’ N, 32° 49.089’ E||el-Hammam shrine [NK19; minor Pt]||intact|
|on EB at 25° 7.672’ N, 32° 47.633’ E||Thutmose III shrine [NK18]||destroyed|
|on EB at 25° 7.318’ N, 32° 48.054’ E||Nectanebo I or II shrine [LP30]||largely destroyed|
|Kom el-Ahmar [Eg. Nekhen; Gr. Hierakonpolis]||on WB at ~25° 5.86’ N, 32° 46.84’ E||temple [NK18; minor Pt]||minor limestone?; destroyed|
|near el-Kilh Sharq||on EB, not located but near 25° 3.6’ N, 32° 52.4’ E||two temples [Pt or R like the nearby Nag el-Dumariyya quarry?]||both destroyed and now lost with the building stone unknown but probably sandstone|
|Edfu [Eg. Djeba or Mesen; Gr. Apollinopolis]||on WB at 24° 58.680’ N, 32° 52.410’ E||Horus temple [Pt; minor NK19-20]||intact|
|Nag el-Goneima||on WB at 24° 56.619’ N, 32° 50.515’ E||pyramid [ED3]||largely intact|
|Gebel el-Silsila [Eg. Kheny or Khenu]||on EB at 24° 38.991’ N, 32° 56.045’ E||Kheny temple [NK18-19]||minor limestone; destroyed|
|Rasras or Faris||on WB at 24° 35.205’ N, 32° 54.086’ E||temple [R]||destroyed|
|Kom Ombo [Eg. Nubt; Gr. Ombos]||on EB at 24° 27.120’ N, 32° 55.690’ E||Sobek and Haroeris temple [Pt; minor NK18 & R]||largely intact|
|Aswan area [Eg. Swenet; Gr. Syene]||on Elephantine Island at 24° 5.095’ N, 32° 53.177’ E||Hekaib shrine [MK11-12]||largely intact|
|on Elephantine Island at 24° 5.086’ N, 32° 53.199’ E||Satet or Satis temple [MK11 & NK18]||moderately intact|
|on Elephantine Island at 24° 5.054’ N, 32° 53.187’ E||Khnum temple [LP30]||largely destroyed|
|in Aswan city at 24° 5.042’ N, 32° 53.601’ E||Isis temple [Pt]||intact|
|on Philae Island originally at 24° 1.300’ N, 32° 53.336’ E and moved to Agilkia Island at 24° 1.519’ N, 32° 53.054’ E||Isis temple complex [Pt-R; minor LP30]||intact|
|on Biga Island at ~24° 1.25’ N, 32° 53.16’ E||Osiris temple [Pt]||largely destroyed|
|Dabod||originally on WB at ~23° 53.7’ N, 32° 51.7’ E and moved to the Museo Arqueologico Nacional, Madrid, Spain||Isis temple [Mer & Pt-R]||largely intact|
|Dimri||on both WB and EB close to ~23° 51.2’ N, 32° 53.5’ E||temples [R]||largely destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Qumla||on EB at ~23° 42.9’ N, 32° 54.0’ E||temple [Pt]||destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Qertassi [Gr. Tzitzis]||originally on WB at ~23° 41.8’ N, 32° 53.4’ E and moved to New Kalabasha on WB at 23° 57.610’ N, 32° 52.053’ E||Hathor shrine [R]||largely intact|
|Tafa [Gr. Taphis]||originally on WB at ~23° 38.2’ N, 32° 52.3’ E and moved to Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden, Netherlands||north temple [R]||intact; there is also reportedly a south temple that is largely destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Beit el-Wali||originally on WB at ~23° 33.7’ N, 32° 51.8’ E and moved to New Kalabsha on WB at 23° 57.710’ N, 32° 51.976’ E||Amun temple [NK19]||partly rock-cut; largely intact|
|Kalabsha [Gr. Talmis]||originally on WB at ~23° 33.6’ N, 32° 51.8’ E and moved to New Kalabsha on WB at 23° 57.651’ N, 32° 52.044’ E||Horus-Mandulis temple [R]||largely intact|
|originally on WB at ~23° 33.6’ N, 32° 51.8’ E and moved to New Kalabsha on WB at 23° 57.646’ N, 32° 52.002’ E||Dedwen shrine and birthhouse [Pt]||partly rock-cut; largely intact|
|originally on WB at ~23° 33.6’ N, 32° 51.8’ E and moved to Elephantine Island at 24° 5.028’ N, 32° 53.095’ E||Ptolemy IX shrine [Pt; minor R]||partly intact|
|originally on WB at ~23° 33.6’ N, 32° 51.8’ E and moved to Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin, Germany||gateway for Kalabsha temple enclosure [Pt-R]||largely intact|
|Abu Hor or Kobash ?||on EB at ~23° 26.5’ N, 32° 54.8’ E||temple [Pt-R]||largely destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Dendur [Gr. Tutzis]||originally on WB at ~23° 23.2’ N, 32° 56.1’ E and moved to Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA||Pediset and Pihor temple [R]||intact|
|Gerf Hussein||originally on WB at ~23° 16.7’ N, 32° 53.6’ E with the free-standing courtyard moved to New Kalabsha on WB at 23° 57.617’ N, 32° 52.017’ E and portions of the rock-cut reliefs moved to the Aswan Museum||Ptah, Ptah-Tenen and Hathor temple [NK19]||partly rock-cut; largely intact with rock-cut portion now under Lake Nasser|
|el-Dakka [Eg. Pselqet; Gr. Pselchis]||originally on WB at ~23° 10.4’ N, 32° 45.3’ E and moved to New Sebu’a on WB at 22° 48.066’ N, 32° 32.749’ E||Thoth and Pnubs temple [Mer, Pt-R; some reused blocks from a MK-NK temple from other side of river]||intact|
|Kubban or Quban [Eg. Baki; Contra Pselchis]||on EB near ~23° 9.5’ N, 32° 45.6’ E||three temples [MK]||destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Qurta||on WB at ~23° 6.6’ N, 32° 43.1’ E||Isis temple [R; minor NK18]||largely destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|el-Maharraqa or Offeduniya [Gr. Hierasykaminos]||originally on WB at ~23° 3.5’ N, 32° 41.6’ E and moved to New Sebu’a on WB at 22° 48.037’ N, 32° 32.857’ E||Serapis temple [R]||largely intact|
|es-Sebu’a||originally on WB at ~22° 46.0’ N, 32° 33.5’ E and moved to New Sebu’a on WB at 22° 47.579’ N, 32° 32.723’ E||Amun and Re-Horakhti temple [NK19; minor NK18]||partially rock-cut; largely intact|
|el-`Amada||originally on WB at ~22° 43.4’ N, 32° 14.3’ E and moved to New Amada on WB at 22° 43.863’ N, 32° 15.758’ E||Amun and Re-Horakhti temple [NK18-19]||intact|
|`Aniba [Eg. Mi’an]||on WB at ~22° 42.8’ N, 32° 4.2’ E||Horus or Karanub temple [NK18; minor MK12 & NK19-20]||largely destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Kharaba||on EB near Nag Shaqqa at ~22° 38.9’ N, 32° 16.1’ E||temple [age?]||destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Qasr Ibrim [Gr. Primis]||on EB at 22° 38.977’ N, 31° 59.554’ E||temple [LP25]||largely destroyed and now on an island in Lake Nasser|
|Faras [Gr. Pakhoras]||on WB at ~22° 13.0’ N, 31° 29.0’ E||Hathor temple [NK18]||largely destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Aksha or Serra West||on WB at ~22° 9.6’ N, 31° 25.0’ E with some reliefs moved to the National Museum, Khartoum, Sudan||Amun-Re temple [NK19]||largely destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Buhen||on WB at ~21° 54.4’ N, 31° 17.2’ E and moved to the National Museum, Khartoum, Sudan||Isis and Min temple [NK18] and Horus temple [NK18 & LP25]||largely intact|
|Behar & Kor||on WB at ~21° 52.6’ N, 31° 15.6’ E||Behar temple and Kor fortress walls [MK12-13]||largely destroyed and now under Lake Nasser|
|Mirgissa [Eg. Iken]||on WB at ~21° 49.5’ N, 31° 11.7’ E||Hathor temple [NK]||largely intact? and now under Lake Nasser|
|Semna West||originally on WB at ~21° 29.6’ N, 30° 57.5’ E and moved to the National Museum, Khartoum, Sudan||Dedwen temple [NK18 & LP25; minor MK12]||largely intact|
|Semna East or Kumma||originally on EB at ~21° 29.5’ N, 30° 57.9’ E and moved to the National Museum, Khartoum, Sudan||Khnum temple [NK18]||largely intact|
|`Amara West||on WB at 20° 49.299’ N, 30° 23.071’ E||Amun temple [NK19]||largely destroyed|
|Sedeinga||on WB at 20° 33.181’ N, 30° 17.623’ E||Hathor temple [NK18]||destroyed|
|Soleb||on WB at 20° 26.179’ N, 30° 20.043’ E||Amun-Re temple [NK18]||largely destroyed|
|Sesebi||on WB at 20° 6.575’ N, 30° 32.585’ E||Aten temple [NK18] rebuilt as Amun, Mut and Khonsu temple [NK19]||largely destroyed|
|Tabo||on EB at 19° 23.141’ N, 30° 28.161’ E||Amun temple [LP25; minor Mer]||largely destroyed|
|Kawa [Eg. Gematon]||on EB at 19° 7.390’ N, 30° 29.817’ E||Amun temples [NK18, LP25 & Nap-Mer]||largely destroyed|
|Nuri||on WB at 18° 33.894’ N, 31° 54.946’ E||pyramids [LP25 & Nap-Mer]||largely intact|
|Jebel Barkal [Ku. Napata]||on EB at 18° 32.094’ N, 31° 49.817’ E||Amun temple complex [NK18-19, LP25 & Nap-Mer] and pyramids [Mer]||temples partly intact and pyramids intact|
|Sanam Abu Dom||on WB at 18° 29.004’ N, 31° 49.139’ E||Amun-Re temple [LP25]||largely destroyed|
|el-Kurru||on EB at 18° 24.546’ N, 31° 46.243’ E||pyramids [LP25]||largely destroyed|
|Faiyum Depression||Qasr el-Sagha at 29° 35.708’ N, 30° 40.671’ E||temple [MK12]||intact|
|Dimai [Gr. Soknopaiou Nesos] at 29° 32.150’ N, 30° 40.115’ E||Soknopaios temple [Pt-R]||mostly mud brick and limestone; largely intact|
|Medinet Madi [Gr. Narmouthis] at 29° 11.620’ N, 30° 38.520’ E||Renenutet temple [MK12; minor Pt-R]||possibly sandy limestone; largely intact|
|Bahariyya Depression||in Bawiti area at 28° 21.416’ N, 28° 50.787’ E||Apries Shrines [LP26]||largely intact|
|in Bawiti area at ~28° 21.25’ N, 28° 51.50’ E||Roman arch||destroyed|
|in Bawiti area el-Qasr or `Ain el-Muftalla at 28° 20.870’ N, 28° 51.502’ E||Amasis and Apries temple [LP26]||largely destroyed|
|in Bawiti area Qasr el-Migysbah at 28° 20.510’ N, 28° 49.326’ E||Alexander the Great temple [Pt]||largely intact|
|south of Bawiti Qasr Allam at 28° 15.575’ N, 28° 47.045’ E||Alexander the Great temple [Pt]||mostly mud brick; largely destroyed|
|Kharga Depression||Ain Amur at 25° 39.112’ N, 29° 59.460’ E||temple [R]||partly limestone; largely destroyed|
|el-Kharga at 25° 28.587’ N, 30° 33.316’ E||Hibis temple [LP27, LP30 & Pt]||minor limestone; largely intact|
|Kom el-Nadura at 25° 28.140’ N, 30° 33.840’ E||temple [R]||largely destroyed|
|Qasr el-Ghueida at 25° 17.200’ N, 30° 33.470’ E||Amun temple [LP26 & Pt]||largely intact|
|Qasr Zaiyan at 25° 15.085’ N, 30° 34.254’ E||Amun, Mut and Khonsu temple [Pt-R]||largely intact|
|Qasr Dush at 24° 34.800’ N, 30° 43.030’ E||Isis and Serapis temple [R]||largely intact|
|Dakhla Depression||el-Qasr el-Dakhla at ~25° 41.79’ N, 28° 53.01’ E||Thoth temple [Pt-R]||destroyed or buried under houses|
|Amheida at ~25° 40.13’ N, 28° 52.25’ E||Toth temple [Pt-R]||largely destroyed|
|Deir el-Hagar at 25° 39.882’ N, 28° 48.800’ E||Amun, Mut and Khonsu temple [R]||largely intact|
|Balat at 25° 33.433’ N, 29° 16.788’ E||Mut temple [NK]||largely destroyed|
|Ain Birbiya at 25° 31.363’ N, 29° 19.173’ E||Amennakht temple [R]||possibly limestone; largely intact|
|Ismant el-Kharab [Gr. Kellis] at 25° 30.964’ N, 29° 5.643’ E||Tutu and Neith temples [R]||possibly limestone; largely destroyed|
|Mut el-Kharab at ~25° 29.02’ N, 28° 58.42’ E||Seth temple [R; minor NK18, 3IP, LP26 & Pt]||destroyed|
|Eastern Desert and Sinai|
|Serabit el-Khadim, Sinai||at 29° 2.213’ N, 33° 27.560’ E||Hathor temple [MK12 & NK18]||mostly limestone; largely intact|
|Bir el-Kanayis, Eastern Desert||at 25° 0.358’ N, 33° 18.018’ E||Amun-Re temple [NK19]||mostly rock-cut|
|Location35||Position||Age36, Size37 and Status||Sandstone Petrology38|
|el-Mahamid||on EB at 25° 8.15’ N, 32° 46.92’ E||Pt; medium; intact and not protected?||very fine- to fine-grained; massive to indistinct planar bedding with minor tabular cross-bedding; light yellowish-brown (total feldspar = 9.4-11.2% )|
|Shesmetet||on EB at 25° 8.065’ N, 32° 49.034’ E||NK19 & Pt like the nearby Shesmetet temple?; small; intact and protected||fine-grained; massive to indistinct planar bedding with minor tabular cross-bedding; light brown?|
|Wadi el-Tarifa||on WB at 25° 4.70’ N, 32° 44.62’ E||NK18 & Pt like the nearby Kom el-Ahmar temple?; medium; destroyed||very fine- to medium-grained; massive bedding to tabular cross-bedding; light brown to mainly light brownish gray or light gray (has a “high proportion of feldspar” according to Klemm and Klemm 2008: 173)|
|el-Keijal||on EB at 25° 4.09’ N, 32° 51.78’ E||Pt or R, at least in part; small; intact and not protected||very fine- to fine-grained; massive bedding; medium brown or light pinkish to purplish brown (total feldspar = 8.7% )|
|Quseir Formation – upper part|
|Nag el-Dumariyya||on EB at 25° 2.96’ N, 32° 53.33’ E||Pt-R; small, intact and not protected||very fine- to fine-grained; planar bedding with minor trough cross-bedding; light pinkish gray or brown|
|el-Bueib||on EB at 24° 48.61’ N, 32° 54.84’ E||MK12, NK18 & B?; medium; moderately intact and not protected||very fine- to medium-grained; massive to planar bedding and tabular cross-bedding; light brown (total feldspar = 6.1% )|
|Nag el-Raqiqein||on WB at 24° 44.76’ N, 32° 55.24’ E||age?; small; largely intact and now threatened||very fine- to mainly fine-grained; tabular cross-bedding with minor planar bedding; light to medium brown (total feldspar = 14.2% )|
|Quseir Formation – lower part|
|Nag el-Hosh||on WB at 24° 44.31’ N, 32° 55.28’ E||Pt-R; medium; largely intact and now threatened||fine- to mainly medium-grained; tabular cross-bedding; light brown to light pinkish-brown (total feldspar = 1.4% )|
|Wadi Shatt el-Rigal||on WB at 24° 41.11’ N, 32° 55.39’ E||MK11-12 & NK18?; medium; intact and partially protected||very fine- to mainly fine- to medium-grained; tabular cross-bedding; light gray to light yellowish gray or brown (total feldspar = <1% )|
|Nag el-Hammam||on WB at 24° 40.36’ N, 32° 55.47’ E||MK-NK?; medium; intact and not protected||very fine- to mainly fine- to medium-grained: tabular cross-bedding; light brown (northern part) to brownish-yellow (southern part) with occasional thin purplish-brown planar zones (total feldspar = <1% )|
|Gebel el-Silsila||on WB at 24° 39.05’ N, 32° 55.75’ E, and on EB at 24° 38.48’ N, 32° 56.04’ E||MK-R; large; largely intact and protected||vmainly fine- to medium-grained and occasionally pebbly medium- to coarse-grained; tabular cross-bedding but planar bedding when coarse-grained; light to medium brown or yellowish- to orangy-brown with common minute reddish-brown spots, or yellowish-white to white (total feldspar = <1.3% )|
|Umm Barmil Formation|
|Nag el-Falilih||on EB at 24° 20.04’ N, 32° 55.27’ E||Pt & R?; medium; partially destroyed and not protected||very fine- to mainly fine-grained; massive to indistinct tabular cross-bedding; light yellowish- to pinkish-brown (total feldspar = 3.5% )|
|Nag el-Sheikh Garad||on EB at 24° 18.45’ N, 32° 54.72’ E||Pt & R?; large; largely destroyed||very fine- to mainly fine- to medium-grained; tabular cross-bedding; light yellowish- to pinkish-brown (total feldspar = 1.5-4.6% )|
|Gebel el-Hammam||on EB at ~24° 13.5’ N, 32° 52.5’ E||NK18; small?; destroyed||very fine- to mainly fine- to medium-grained; tabular cross-bedding; light yellowish- to pinkish-gray (total feldspar = 1.7% )|
|Nag el-Fuqani||on WB at 24° 12.24’ N, 32° 51.60’ E||Pt; medium; largely intact and now threatenedd||fine- to medium-grained; tabular cross-bedding with minor planar to wavy bedding; yellowish- or pinkish-gray to mainly light gray|
|Hagar el-Ghorab||on WB at 24° 11.33’ N, 32° 51.79’ E||Pt-R?; small; intact and now threatened||no information|
|Gebel el-Qurna||on WB at 24° 9.75’ N, 32° 52.10’ E||R and earlier?; medium; intact and not protected||fine- to mainly medium- to coarse-grained; tabular cross-bedding; light gray or light yellowish- to pinkish-gray (total feldspar = <1% )|
|Qubbet el-Hawa||on WB at 24° 6.11’ N, 32° 53.26’ E (possible quarry)||from exteriors of OK6 & MK12 tombs; small; intact and protected||medium- to mainly fine-grained; planar bedding with thin mudstone interbeds; light gray or multi-hued in shades of gray, yellow, brown, red and purple|
|Abu Aggag Formation|
|St. Simeon||on WB at 24° 5.69’ N, 32° 52.55’ E||either OK-MK like the nearby Qubbet el-Hawa tombs or B like the St. Simeon monastery; small; largely intact and protected||medium- to coarse-grained; planar bedding; light brown?|
|Aswan||on EB at 24° 3.29’ N, 32° 54.46’ E||NK & R?, medium?; largely destroyed||no information|
|Dabod||on WB at ~23° 53.7’ N, 32° 51.7’ E||Pt, R & Mer like the nearby Dabod and Dimri temples?; small?; under Lake Nasser||no information|
|Qertassi||on WB at ~23° 41.8’ N, 32° 53.4’ E||Pt & R; large; under Lake Nasser||no information|
|Tafa||on WB at ~23° 38.2’ N, 32° 52.3’ E||R like the nearby Tafa temple?; small or medium?; under Lake Nasser||no information|
|Kalabsha||on WB at ~23° 33.6 ’ N, 32° 51.8’ E||Pt-R like the nearby Kalabsha temples; small or medium?; under Lake Nasser||fine-grained; light yellowish-brown – based on samples from the Kalabsha temple (total feldspar = <1 % )|
|Abu Hor||on WB ~23° 26.5’ N, 32° 54.8’ E||Pt & R like the nearby Abu Hor temple?; small or medium?; under Lake Nasser||no information|
|Qurta||on WB at ~23° 6.6’ N, 32° 44.1’ E||MK, NK18, Pt & R like the nearby Kubban, el-Dakka, Qurta and el-Maharraqa temples?; small or medium?; under Lake Nasser||fine-grained; light brown to yellowish-brown – based on samples from the el-Maharraqa temple (total feldspar = <1% )|
|Agayba||on WB at ~22° 51.0’ N, 32° 34.0’ E||NK18-19 like the nearby es-Sebu’a temple; small?; under Lake Nasser||no information|
|Sabaya or Lake Nasser Formation|
|Qasr Ibrim||on EB at ~22° 39.0’ N, 31° 59.5’ E||LP25 like the nearby Qasr Ibrim temple?; small?; under Lake Nasser||no information|
|Nag Deira||on EB at ~22° 30.4’ N, 31° 53.5’ E||NK like the nearby rock-cut tombs?; small; under Lake Nasser||no information|
|Gebel Adda||on EB at ~22° 17.7’ N, 31° 36.5’ E||Mer; small; under Lake Nasser||pink and white sandstones; no other information|
|Abu Simbel Formation|
|Gezira Dabarosa||on WB at ~21° 55.8’ N, 31° 18.7’ E||MK12-13, NK18 & LP25 like the nearby Buhen and Kor fortresses?; small; under Lake Nasser||no information|
|Abdel Kadir||on WB at 21° 52.41’ N, 31° 9.13’ E||MK11; small; intact and above Lake Nasser||no information|
|Nubian Sandstone Formation undifferentiated|
|Sesebi||on WB at 20° 6.70’ N, 30° 32.57’ E||NK18-19 like the nearby Sesebi temple?; small; intact and unprotected?||cross-bedded; light gray to nearly white with occasional orange bands; no other information|
|Jebel Barkal Foug||on EB at 18° 32.66’ N, 31° 49.86’ E||NK18-19, LP25, Nap & Mer like the nearby Gebel Barkal temples?; small to medium; largely intact and not protected||no information|
|Khor el-Hawazawin||on EB at 18° 30.59’ N, 31° 48.58’ E||no information|
|Khor el-Sadda||on EB at 18° 30.05’ N, 31° 48.08’ E||no information|
|el-Muweih||at 25° 56.70’ N, 33° 23.91’ E||R; medium; intact and not protected||Taref Formation: no other information|
|Bir el-Kanayis||at 25° 0.24’ N, 33° 18.52’ E||NK19 & R like the nearby temple and praesidium?; small; intact and protected||Quseir Formation: no other information|
|Qaret el-Farangi, Bahariya Depression||at ~28° 20.69’ N, 28° 51.92’ E||LP26, Pt & R like the nearby temples in el-Bawati?; small?; largely destroyed?||Bahariya Formation: no other information|
|el-Muzawqa, Dakhla Depression||at 25° 40.91’ N, 28° 50.31’ E||Pt & R like the nearby Amheida and Deir el-Hagar temples?; small; intact and protected?||Quseir or Duwi Formation: no other information|
|south of Masara, Dakhla Depression||at ~25° 28.7’ N, 29° 3.4’ E||NK18, 3IP, LP26, Pt & especially R like the nearby Ismant el-Kharab and Mut el-Kharab temples?; medium?; largely intact and not protected||Quseir or Taref Formation: no other information|
|Gebel el-Teir, Kharga Depression||at ~25° 32.4’ N, 30° 33.1’ E||LP27, LP30, Pt & R like the nearby el-Kharga and Kom el-Nadura temples?; small?; largely intact?||Quseir or Dakhla Formation: no other information|
|Serabit el-Khadim||at 29° 2.20’ N, 33° 23.90’ E||MK12-NK20 like the nearby Hathor temple||Abu Durba Formation of Lower Carboniferous age|
Appendix 2. Ancient Egyptian Sandstone Quarries37